TABLE OF IMPORTANT EVENTS

Before Christ (BC)  
800.000. Homo Erectus in Peninsular
300.000. Hunting camps in Soria and Madrid
100.000. Neanderthal tribe in Gibraltar
35.000. Cro-Magnon tribe in Peninsular
18.000. Cave Dwellers
12.000. Talaiotic tribe in Minorca
11.000. El Argar tribe in southeast Spain
11.000. Phoenicians found Cádiz
7.000. Neothlithic tribe across the whole of the Peninsular
2.500. Palaeolithic tribe across the whole of the Peninsular
2.000. Emergence of Bronze Age in the Peninsular
1.100. Phoenicians settled in Cádiz
1.000. Tartessus kingdom
775 Phoenicians founded Málaga
600 Greeks in northeast Spain
300 Carving of La Dama de Elche figure
237 Romans reach Cádiz
230 Carthaginians settle in Barcelona
228 Carthaginians occupy southeast Spain
227 River Ebro divides Roman and Cathagenian occupation of Peninsular
219 Hannibal takes Saguntum (beginning of 2nd Punic War)
210 Romans land in Peninsular
206 Hannibal driven out of Peninsular
155 Romans invade area known now as Portugal
142 Romans eventually defeat Lusitanian leader Virathus
133 Celt-Iberian Wars
82 Roman Civil War 
61 Julius Caesar governor of Hispana Ulterior
55 Pompey appointed ruler of Hispana
38 Hispana declared part of State of Rome
26 Emerita Augusta (Mérida) founded as capital of Lusitanian
19 Augustus captures Cantabria and Asturias
After Death (AD)  
40 First appearance of Christianity in the Peninsular
58 Reputed arrival of remains of Saint James at Compostella
74 Vespasian grants Latin status to all Hispanic Towns
99 Roman Empire ruled by first Emperor of Spanish origin, Trajan (99-117)
110 Construction of Aqueduct of Segovia commenced
258 Franks sack Tarragona
306 Granada Council of Illiberius decides on celibacy for priests
312 Constantine recognizes Christianity as a religion
5th Century  
409 Vandals enter the Peninsular
415 Visigoths establish a court in Barcelona
446 Romans attempt to win back Peninsular territory
476 Romans completely overthrown
484 Visigoths led by King Alaric II established Toledo as their capital
6th Century  
560 Birth of Saint Isidore (560 - 636)
568 Death of Leovigild, the last Arain King of the Visigoths
589 Visigoth King Recared converts to Catholicism
7th Century  
633 4th Synod of Toeldo adopts Latin as the official language
8th Century  
711 Moors invade and defeat Visigoths at Guadelete (Emirate Period 711-756)
714 Most of the Peninsular had been occupied by the Moors
718 Count Pelayo invades from the north defeating Moors at Covadonga
722 Moors defeated by Visigoth Prince Pelayo at Covadonga
724 Garcia Ximenes founds Sobarbe (future Kingdom of Aragón)
732 Moors invasion of France halted by Charles Martel
739 Alfonso I of Asturias creates Kingdom of León
750 Alfonso I of Asturias occupies Galicia
756 Adb al Rahman I proclaims Independence of Córdoba (Caliphate Period 756-1031)
777 Invading Charlemagne defeated at Roncesvalles
785 Mosque of Cordoba commenced
9th Century  
800 Tomb of St. James supposedly found at Santiago de Compostela
811 Charlemagne captures Cátalonia
822 Adb al Rahman II commences his 30 years of support for culture and the arts
824 Kingdom of Asturias becomes part of Kingdom of León
852 García I forms Kingdom of Navarra
873 Wilfredo (the Hairy) (873-898), becomes Christian ruler as Count of Barcelona
899 Vision of Santiago de Compstela
10th Century  
905 Sancho I (905-926), claims new province of Navarra as his Kingdom 
913 León is chosen as the Christian Capital 
929 Abd-ar-Rahman III declares his Emirate as the Caliphate of Córdoba
932 Count Fernán Gonzales becomes the first Count of Castille
936 Palace of Medina Azahara at Córdoba commenced 
951 Moors recognize Kingdoms of León and Navarra
976 General Al Mansur recaptures León, Pampalona and Barcelona
976 Mosque of Córdoba completed
981 Ramiro III of León is defeated by Moors at Rueda
997 Al-Mansur destroys the shrine of Santiago de Compostela 
11th Century  
1010 Palace of Medina Azahara at Córdoba sacked by Berbers
1001 King Sancho III of Navarra (1001-1035)
1002 Civil Wars begin in Al-Andulus
1031 Power of Córdoba broken into small kingdoms (Reinos de Taifas Period 1031-1492)
1035 Sancho III kingdom divided between Ramiro in Aragón and Fernando 1of Castille
1037 Fernando I unites for the first time kingdoms of León and Castille
1065 Death of Fernando II causes Civil War between his two sons
1081 El Cid sent into exile
1085 Toledo taken from Visigoths by Alfonso VI with El Cid 
1086 Almoravids tribe arrive to help remaining Moors and defeat Alfonso IV at Badajoz
1093 Alfonso IV of Castille gives future Portugal to his daughter as wedding present
1094 El Cid becomes ruler of Valencia
1099 Death of El Cid
12th Century  
1110 The Almoravids have control of Al-Andulus
1118 Great Mosque of Córdoba completed
1118 Afonso I captures Zaragoza
1126 Birth in Córdoba of philosopher ibn-Rushd (1126-1198)
1137 Kingdoms of Aragón and Catalunya united by marriage under Ramon Berenquer IV
1139 Portugal becomes its own kingdom
1147 Almohades tribe make Seville their capital
1151 Almohades retake Almaria
1152 Alfonso II of Aragón brings through inheritance the County of Barcelona
1158 First Knights Order of Calatrava established 
1172 Almohades capture Seville replacing decadent Almoravids
1195 Defeat of Alfonso VIII of Castille by Moors at Alarcos
13th Century  
1212 Almohades defeated by Christian army at Las Navas de Tolosa
1215 Salamanca University founded
1229 Jaume I of Aragón retakes Mallorca
1230 León and Castille reunited in a kingdom by Fernando III
1232 Nasrid tribe establish Grenada as their capital
1232 Palace of Alhambra commenced
1235 Ibn Nasr founds Kingdom of Karnattah (Granada)
1235 Jaume I of Aragón captured Valencia, Alicante and Balearic Islands
1236 Córbada taken by Fernando III
1248 Fernando III takes possession of Córdoba and Seville
1250 Under Alfonso X the town of Toledo becomes seat of learning
1253 Peace agreement between Spain and Portugal
1280 Except for Granada all the Peninsular was in the hands of Christian Kings
1284 Alfonso X (the Wise), abdicates in favour of his son Sancho IV
1285 France invades Cátalonia
1291 Aragón rules Sicily
1298 Construction of Barcelona Cathedral commenced
14th Century  
1309 Fernando IV captures Gibraltar
1312 Dissolution of Knights Templers
1340 Alfonso XI wins at Rio Salado using artillery in battle for the first time 
1355 Pedro (the Cruel) of Castille (1350-1369)
1355 Birth of Saint Vincent Ferrer of Valencia (1355-1419)
1369 Pedro (the Cruel) murdered and throne taken by Enrique II
1385 Portuguese army led by João I defeats King Juan I of Castille at Aljubarrota
1386 English invasion of Galicia ended in Treaty of Bayonne
1388 Spanish limited involvement in Hundred Years War
15th Century  
1401 Cathedral of Seville commenced
1411 Peace agreement signed between Spain and Portugal
1442 Alfonso V adds Naples to his Kingdoms
1451 Birth of Isabel of Castille
1454 Enrique IV of Castille (1454-1474)
1465 Civil War in Castille
1469 Marriage of Fernando and Isabel unites Castille and Aragón
1473 Siege of Barcelona
1474 Isabel of Castille (1474-1504)
1476 Isabel of Castille defeats Juana la Beltraneja at Toro
1478 Spanish Inquisition commences under Tomás de Torquemada
1479 Fernando II of Aragón (1479-1516)
1481 First "auto de fe" takes place in Seville
1487 Málaga surrenders to Christian army
1491 Christians commence siege of Granada
1492 Moors defeated by the surrender of Granada
1492 Christopher Columbus first reaches America
1492 The court rules to expel Jews from Spain
1493 Pope Alexander VI issues edict giving Spain all lands 100 leagues west of Cape Verde
1494 Treaty of Tordesillas over boundary of Castille and Portugal and 100 leagues to 370
1495 Spain joins the Pope, Milan and Venice in the Holy League against France 
1495 Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean become Spanish territory
1496 Foundation of first Spanish town in America - Santo Domingo
16th Century  
1502 Remaining practising Moors expelled from Spain
1503 Casa de Contrtación established in Seville
1504 Juana "la Loca" of Castille (1504-1555)
1512 Full unification of Spain achieved by adding Navarra
1513 Vasco Nuñez de Balboa sights Pacific Ocean
1516 Carlos I of Spain (1516-1556)
1519 Carlos I of Spain becomes also Emperor Charles V of Holy Roman Empire
1519 Portuguese explorer Magellan sails from Seville
1519 Mexico conquered by force led by Cortés
1521 Castilian rebel nobles defeated at Villalar
1527 Carlos I sacks Rome
1532 Inca Empire destroyed by Pizarro
1534 Founding of the Order of Jesuits by St. Ignatius
1535 Carlos I successfully attacks Tunis
1535 Carlos I inherits Kingdom of Milan
1540 Father Bartilomé de las Casa denounces oppression of Indians by Spain
1541 Birth of painter El Greco (1541-1614)
1547 Carlos I defeats Protestants in battle at Muhlburg
1547 Birth of writer Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616), author of "Don Quixote"
1554 Marriage of Felipe II to Mary Tudor of England
1556 Felipe II of Spain (1556-1598)
1557 First of a series of bankruptcies of the State
1559 Peace between Spain and France made at Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis
1561 Palace of El Escorial commenced
1561 Madrid chosen as capital of Spain
1562 Saint Teresa of Avila founds Order of reformed Carmelites
1562 Birth of playwright Lope de Vega (1562-1635)
1556 Carlos I of Spain abdicates his throne
1557 Battle of San Quenten in Flanders
1567 Duke of Alba sent to squash Protestant rebels in the Low Countries 
1568 Moriscos (converted Moors to Christianity) revolt in Granada
1569 First bible published in the Castilian language
1571 Spanish led by Don Juan of Austria defeat Turks in naval battle at Lepanto
1579 Union of Utrecht of northern Europe to defeat Spain
1580 Spain takes and declares Portugal joined under the Spanish crown
1581 The Netherlands led by William of Orange declare independence
1584 Birth of writer Tirso de Molina (1584-1648)
1587 Sir Francis Drake attacks Spanish fleet off Cádiz
1588 1st Spanish Armada destroyed by English fleet
1584 Palace of El Escorial completed
1591 Birth of painter Jusepe de Ribeira (1591-1652)
1596 2nd Spanish Armada failed to reach England due to weather
1597 3rd Spanish Armada failed to reach England due to weather
1598 Felipe III of Spain (1598-1621)
1598 Birth of painter Franciso de Zurbarán (1598-1664)
1599  Birth of painter Diego da Silva y Velázquez (1599-1660)
17th Century  
1600 Capital of Spain moved temporary to Valladolid
1600 Birth of playwright Calderón (1600-1681)
1605 Publication of first two sections of Cervantes book "Don Quixote"
1609 King Felipe III orders the expulsion of all Moriscos (converted Moors)
1609 Expulsion of last Moor (Moriscos) from Valencia
1609 Poems published by Lope de Vega
1617 Birth of painter Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682)
1619 Construction in Madrid of Plaza Mayor
1621 Felipe IV of Spain (1621-1665)
1621 War of Low Countries (Netherlands and Belgium area) resumes 
1622 Velázquez moves from Seville to Madrid
1623 Royal Court appoints Velázquez as "Official Court Painter"
1625 Spanish defeat English invasion of Cadiz
1625 Capture of Breda in the Netherlands after siege lasting one year
1640 Portuguese revolt and separate from Spain
1640 Catalonians declare for King Louis XIII of France (Guerra de Segadors, 1640-1652)
1641 Portugal enthrones Duke of Bragança as new King João IV
1643 Spanish army defeated by France at battle of Rocroi
1643 Fall from power of Count-Duke Olivares
1648 Netherlands achieve limited independence from Spain by Treaty of Westphalia
1652 Spanish army recaptures Catalunya which had sided with France
1656 Spain declares war on England
1659 Treaty of Pyrenees with France and Louis XIV marries daughter of Felipe IV
1665 Felipe V of Spain (1665-1700)
1670 Spain officially recognizes Portuguese throne
1676 Don Juan attempts to dethrone Carlos II
1683 French army of Louis XIV attacks Catalunya and Netherlands
1686 League of Augsburg joins Spain with other countries against France 
18th Century  
1700 Ends Hapsburg and replaced by Bourbon - Felipe V (1700-1724)
1701 War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713)
1713 By the Treaty of Utrecht both Gibraltar and Netherlands are taken from Spain
1714 Barcelona siege and sacked by Felipe V
1724 Felipe V abdicates to son Luis I (1724-1724)
1724 Felipe V (1724-1746)
1727 Spain attempts to blockade Gibraltar
1728 Treaty of Seville brings peace to Europe
1734 Spanish forces take Sicily and Naples
1743 Spain and England at war over American colonies (War of Jenkins Ear)
1746 Fernando VI (1746-1759)
1746 Birth of painter Francisco Goya (1746-1828)
1757 Seven Years War between England and France (Spain fighting for France)
1759 Carlos III (1759-1788)
1761 Spain invades Portugal and England takes Cuba
1763 Treaty of Paris brings temporary peace with England
1767 King Carlos II expels Jesuit Order from Spain and Colonies
1778 Cátalunia was given permission by the crown to trade with American colonies
1779 Spanish again besiege Gibraltar
1780 Sea battle off Cape St. Vincent between Spain and England
1782 Count de Floridablanca expels English from Island of Menorca
1783 Treaty of Versailles and Spain accepted independence of American States
1788 Carlos IV (1788-1808)
1790 Spain hands Vancouver Island to England
19th Century  
1801 Treaty of Amiens confirming Menorca as a Spanish territory
1805 Spanish and French fleets defeated by England at "Battle of Trafalgar"
1808 France invades Spain - Napoleon places brother José on throne (1808-1814)
1808 Spanish War of Independence (1808-1813)
1809 English army invades north coast of Spain
1809 English army helped by Spanish beat French forces at Talavera
1812 Liberal revolt at Cádiz declares liberal constitution
1814 Congress of Vienna and Spain not invited
1814 Fernando VII (1814-1833)
1814 Inquisition re-established in Spain
1816 Argentina declares its independence
1818 Chile and Venezuela declare their independence
1819 Columbia declares its independence
1819 Spain cedes Florida to the American States
1821 Mexico, Guatemala, Peru, Panama and San Domingo, all declare independence
1823 Invited French forces re-establish power of throne of Fernando VII
1824 Peru obtains Independence from Spain
1824 Birth of composer Joseph Anseim Clavé (1824-1874)
1833 Regency of Maria Cristina (1833-1841)
1833 1st Carlist War (1833-1836)
1836 State impound all Monastic property for later sale to the public
1841 Regency of Espartero (1841-1843)
1843 Isabel II (1843-1868)
1852 Birth of Antonio Gaudi (1852-1926)
1868 General Prim leads revolt and deposes Isabel II
1871 1st Republic of Spain declared by General Prim which lasted one year
1871 Amadeo I (1871-1873)
1872 2nd Carlist War (1872-1875)
1874 Revolt led by General Martins Campos in favour of the House of Bourbon
1875 Alfonso XII (1875-1885) - reinstatement of House of Bourbon 
1881 Birth of painter Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
1882 Construction of the Sagrada Família in Barcelona commenced
1883 Birth of painter Juan Gris (1883-1927)
1885 Earthquakes in Andalucía
1886 Alfonso XIII (1886-1902) - Regency of Maria Cristina
1888 Universal Exhibition of Barcelona
1892 Birth of General Francisco Franco Bahamonde (1892-1975)
1893 Opera public in Barcelona bombed by Anarchists
1893 Birth of painter Joan Miró
1897 Prime Minister Cánovas del Castillo assassinated
1898 Spanish-American War gives independence to Cuba, Puerto Rico and Philippines
20th Century  
1902 Alfonso XIII (1902-1931) - dissolved Regency of Maria Cristina
1904 Birth of painter Salvador Dalí e Domènch (1904- ????)
1906 Spain and France given joint control over Morocco
1909 "Semana Trágica" - Workers revolt against army conscription in Barcelona
1912 Prime Minister José Canalejas assassinated in Madrid
1914 Outbreak of 1st World War (1914-1918) and Spain declares neutrality
1921 Spanish army defeated at Anual in Morocco
1923 Primo de Rivera comes to power with backing of Alfonso XIII
1923 Birth of painter Antoni Tàpies
1927 Spain defeats Berbers at Alhucemas in Morocco
1929 International Exhibitions at Barcelona and Seville
1930 Primo de Rivera resigns
1931 Republicans win election causing Alfonso XIII to abdicate
1931 Pact of San Sebastian and Declaration of 2nd Republic of Spain (1931-1939)
1933 General election places power back in right-wing political parties
1934 Revolt by miners in Asturias suppressed by General Franco
1936 Republican Popular Front wins election on 16th January
1936 Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) starts on 17th of July
1936 General Franco declared Head of State on 26th of September
1937 German planes bomb in April the Basque town of Guernica
1938 Republicans defeated in battle for Teruel
1938 Nationalists bomb Barcelona
1939 Nationalists take Madrid, Valencia and Alicante
1939 General Franco declares end of Civil War on 1st of April
1939 Law of "Political Responsibilities" introduced
1914 Outbreak of 2nd World War (1939-1945) and Spain declares neutrality
1940 Hitler meets with General Franco at Hendaye
1945 End of World War II and Spain is politically unaccepted by rest of Europe
1947 Francisco Franco appointed Regent (1947-1975)
1953 Spain signs co-operation agreement with USA
1955 Spain is accepted as a member of United Nations
1956 Spain hands independence to Morocco and loses Ceuta and Melilia
1959 Founding of separatist Basque movement "ETA" 
1962 Spain's application for EC membership rejected
1962 Prince Juan Carlos marries Princess Sofia of Greece
1962 Tourism becomes an a serious new income for Spain
1968 Spain grants independence to Equatorial Guinea 
1969 Prince Juan Carlos named as Crown Price and successor after General Franco
1969 Border access between Spain and Gibraltar closed by Franco
1970 "Burgos Trials" - opponents of Franco regime placed on trial
1973 ETA assassinates Admiral Carrero Blanco
1975 Juan Carlos I (1975-) - return of House of Bourbon upon death of General Franco
1975 Spain and USA sign agreement for military USA basis on Spanish soil
1975 Languages of Cátalan, Basque and Galicia are official languages of Spain
1976 Spain cedes Western Sahara to Morocco and Mauretania
1977 Communist Party is legalized
1977 Free elections brings UDC Party and Adólfo Suárez with a centralist government 
1978 New Democratic Constitution introduced 
1980 Spain becomes member of NATO
1980 Catalonia and Basque regions become legally autonomous
1981 Adólfo Suárez resigns and succeeded by Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo
1981 Military officers led by Colonel Antonio Tejero stage unsuccessful coup
1982 New elections brings PSOE Party to power led by Felipe González
1983 Semi-autonomous 17 regional governments established
1986 Election brings back Socialist Workers Party under Felipe González
1986 Spain joins European Community (later changed to European Union) and NATO
1989 Spain holds rotating Presidency of EC for first time
1991 Madrid hosts Bush-Gorbachev Summit
1992 Barcelona Summer Olympics
1992 Expo 92 -International Exposition in Seville
1993 Felipe González wins third term in office
1994 Scandals in government begin to sway public away from González
1996 Election won by Partido Popular and a coalition led by Jose Maria Aznar
1998 ETA announces a ceasefire
21st Century  
2000 Partido Popular wins second term in office
2000 Real Madrid makes history by winning 8th European Football Cup
2004 al-Qaeda explodes bombs on 11th March in Madrid killing 191 of the public
2004 PDSE led by José Luis Zapatero is elected to rule the country
2008 PDSE led by José Luis Zapatero is re-elected for second term
2011 Civil unrest due to lack of employment and particularly for the young
2011 Partido Popular (PP) led by Mariano Rajoy is elected as Prime Minister
2012 Civil unrest due to austerity measures and financial collapse needing help from EC
2014 June - King Juan-Carlos abdicates in favour of his son Felipe VI